Musculoskeletal Assessment

Elizabeth Bruderle

Villanova University

Musculoskeletal Assessment

Function: interrelated with Nervous System

Major Components

Musculoskeletal System

Developmental Variations

Infants/Children

Adolescents:Scoliosis

Older Adult:Osteoporosis

Health Teaching

Nutrition, Exercise, Risk Factors, Safety

Assessment

History: injury, surgery, chronic illness, nutrition, exercise, meds, ADLs, assistive devices, risk factors.

History: questions specific to individual structures (muscles, joints, bones).

Physical Examination:

Assess “get up and go”

Walk around patient

Inspect and Palpate:

Muscles, Joints, Bones

Cephalocaudal approach: neck, spine, shoulder, elbow, wrist, fingers, thumb, hip, knee, ankles, feet, and toes

Joint Range of Motion

abduction, adduction, circumduction

flexion, extension, hyperextension

internal and external rotation

pronation, supination, opposition

dorsal and plantar flexion

eversion and inversion

Range of Motion Exercises

Purpose

Guidelines

Isometric versus Isotonic

Active

Passive

Resistive

Active Assisted

Immobility

Effects on entire system

Assess for risk factors Goal: avoid complications and permanent dysfunction

Documentation

Posture erect without deformities.

Able to “get up and go” without

difficulty. Joints mobile, non tender;

with full ROM. Muscle strength +4,

equal bilaterally.